Integration

– Using this menu you can choose the integration method (an integration method is a numerical procedure for solving the equations of motion).

– In all these examples the only force applied is the gravitational one.

Euler is the less accurate, the result is physically not correct. See how a bouncing particle increases its energy over time (due to the small errors in calculating the aproximated position step by step).

Verlet is more accurate than Euler and energy does not increases. In this example there is no damping force applied, the loss of energy is due to a ‘numerical dissipation’.

Midpoint (default) will be the best choice in most cases.

– In the next example the “loss of energy” (for numerical dissipation) is minimal when choosing Midpoint. Remember: there are not other forces but gravity! In absence of air friction (or other types of forces) the particle should reach its initial position every time!

RK4 is the slowest but also the most accurate one, you can try it where Midpoint is found not to be accurate enough.

Blender Particles Newtonian Integration